programas cribado cancer

ACTUALIZACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA

Nota Bibliográfica

Esta Nota es una recopilación de publicaciones (artículos, informes, libros) sobre cribado de cáncer resultado de una revisión no sistemática de la literatura.

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Josep A Espinás. Pla Director d'Oncología de Catalunya.
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Nota bibliográfica cribado c próstata 2014-05

Etzioni RD, Thompson IM. What do the screening trials really tell us and where do we go from here? Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):223–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725484. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.01.002. PMID: 24725484.

Publication of apparently conflicting results from 2 large trials of prostate cancer screening has intensified the debate about prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and has led to a recommendation against screening from the US Preventive Services Task Force. This article reviews the trials and discusses the limitations of their empirical results in informing public health policy. In particular, the authors explain why harm-benefit trade-offs based on empirical results may not accurately reflect the trade-offs expected under long-term population screening. This information should be useful to clinicians in understanding the implications of these studies regarding the value of PSA screening.

Roobol MJ. International perspectives on screening. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):237–47. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725486. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.01.009. PMID: 24725486.

The estimated population of the world in 2008 was 6.75 billion people, increasing by around 79 million people each year. The world population is aging. In 1970, the world median age was 22 years; it is projected to reach 38 years by 2050. The number of people in the world aged 60 years and older is expected to almost triple to 2 billion by 2050. Because cancer, especially prostate cancer, is predominantly a disease of the elderly, increases in the number of older people will lead to more cases of cancer, even if current incidence rates remain the same.

Kaffenberger SD, Penson DF. The politics of prostate cancer screening. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):249–55. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725487. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.01.004. PMID: 24725487.

The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages.

Knight SJ. Decision making and prostate cancer screening. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):257–66. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725488. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.01.008. PMID: 24725488.

This article presents an overview of the challenges that men encounter in making decisions about prostate cancer screening, including complex affective and cognitive factors and controversies in the interpretation of the evidence on prostate cancer screening. Shared decision making involving patient decision aids are discussed as approaches that can be used to improve the quality of prostate cancer screening decisions, including a close alignment between a man’s values, goals, and preferences and his choice about screening.

Bryant RJ, Lilja H. Emerging PSA-based tests to improve screening. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):267–76. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725489. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.01.003. PMID: 24725489.

This article updates advances in prostate cancer screening based on prostate-specific antigen, its derivatives, and human kallikrein markers. Many men are diagnosed with indolent disease not requiring treatment. Although there is evidence of a survival benefit from screening, the numbers needed to screen and treat remain high. There is risk of exposing men to the side effects of treatment for nonthreatening disease. A screening test is needed with sufficiently good performance characteristics to detect disease at an early stage so treatment may be offered with curative intent, while reducing the number of negative or unnecessary biopsies.

Taneja SS. Early detection of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):xi–xii. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725495. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.03.002. PMID: 24725495.

Loeb S, Cooperberg MR. Early detection of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41(2):xiii. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725496. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2014.03.001. PMID: 24725496

 

Nota bibliográfica cribado c próstata 2014-04

Stampfer MJ, Jahn JL, Gann PH. Further Evidence That Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Reduces Prostate Cancer Mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(3). Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/3/dju026.short. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju026.

Stattin P, Carlsson S, Holmström B, Vickers A, Hugosson J, Lilja H, et al. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Areas With High and Low Prostate Cancer Incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(3). Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/3/dju007.abstract. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju007.
 
Conclusions The lower prostate cancer mortality in high-incidence counties reflecting a high PSA uptake suggests that more-intense as compared with less-intense opportunistic PSA screening reduces prostate cancer mortalit
 
Wilt TJ, Scardino PT, Carlsson S V, Basch E. Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Prostate Cancer: Perspectives on the Evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(3). Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/3/dju010.short. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju010.

 

Nota bibliográfica cribado c próstata 2014-03

Gulati R, Inoue LYT, Gore JL, Katcher J, Etzioni R. Individualized Estimates of Overdiagnosis in Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106(2). Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/2/djt367.abstract.         doi:10.1093/jnci/djt367.

Conclusions The chances of overdiagnosis vary considerably by age, Gleason score, and PSA at diagnosis. The overdiagnosis nomogram presents tailored estimates of these risks based on patient and tumor information known at diagnosis and can be used to inform decisions about treating PSA-detected prostate cancers.

Carlsson S, Assel M, Sjoberg D, Ulmert D, Hugosson J, Lilja H, et al. Influence of blood prostate specific antigen levels at age 60 on benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2014;348.

Conclusions The ratio of benefits to harms of PSA screening varies noticeably with blood PSA levels at age 60. For men with a PSA level <1 ng/mL at age 60, no further screening is recommended. Continuing to screen men with PSA levels >2 ng/mL at age 60 is beneficial, with the number needed to screen and treat being extremely favourable. Screening men with a PSA level of 1-2 ng/mL is an individual decision to be based on a discussion between patient and doctor.

Hayes JH, Barry MJ. Screening for Prostate Cancer With the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test. JAMA. 2014;311(11):1143. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24643604. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.2085. PMID: 24643604.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Available evidence favors clinician discussion of the pros and cons of PSA screening with average-risk men aged 55 to 69 years. Only men who express a definite preference for screening should have PSA testing. Other strategies to mitigate the potential harms of screening include considering biennial screening, a higher PSA threshold for biopsy, and conservative therapy for men receiving a new diagnosis of prostate cancer

   

Nota bibliográfica cribado c próstata 2014-01

Gulati R, Inoue LYT, Gore JL, Katcher J, Etzioni R. Individualized Estimates of Overdiagnosis in Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/01/06/jnci.djt367.abstract. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt367.

Conclusions The chances of overdiagnosis vary considerably by age, Gleason score, and PSA at diagnosis. The overdiagnosis nomogram presents tailored estimates of these risks based on patient and tumor information known at diagnosis and can be used to inform decisions about treating PSA-detected prostate cancers.
 
Freidlin B, Korn EL. A Model Too Far. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/01/06/jnci.djt368.short. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt368.

 

Nota bibliográfica cribado c próstata 2013-11

Hayat Roshanai A, Nordin K, Berglund G. Factors influencing primary care physicians’ decision to order prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test for men without prostate cancer. Acta Oncol (Madr). 2013;52(8):1602–8. Available from: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/0284186X.2012.762998. doi: 10.3109/0284186X.2012.762998. PMID: 23421929.

Conclusion. The decision to screen for prostate cancer using the PSA-test is influenced by several factors and not only those having direct clinical indication for prostate disease. This may lead to unnecessary treatment of some patients

   

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